Archive for the ‘brain’ Category

A new study reveals some surprising insights about the relationship between physical exercise and brain health in old age.


Researchers found that light exercise had the same effect on brain health as no exercise at all. They recommend engaging in “moderate to intense” exercise on a regular basis.

Of the elderly individuals who participated in the study, about one-fifth reported regularly engaging in moderate or intense exercise, “such as hiking, tennis, swimming, biking, jogging or racquetball.” Those individuals showed a 40% lower risk of developing a host of brain problems later in life. It seems reasonable to reach a more broad conclusion from this research, which is that in general, intense exercise promotes better brain health than light exercise.

It seems that they saying, “no pain, no gain,” applies well to the brain.



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The Myth
Making big decisions certainly isn’t easy, especially when they have to do with personal preferences and well-being (rather than finances or physics). Sometimes, the most tempting option is to just try and make them more rational; after all, that seems to work for scientists and engineers, right? We feel the need to systematize our choices, running options through cost-benefit analyses and scrutinizing them according to objective criteria. We think this guarantees better decisions and happier outcomes.

The Reality

But what if we’re wrong? Often, the best choices arrive not through superior logic, but more refined intuition. It’s a surprising finding of recent brain research–our inner minds know a lot more than we credit them for.

Psychologist Timothy Wilson got his inspiration from an odd place–the jam aisle at the grocery store. In his research, he asked people to rank strawberry jams based on how they tasted. Their responses were consistent at first, and they lined up well with Consumer Reports’s professional taste test. But when he asked them to supply the reasons why they liked or disliked the jams, the results became chaotic. They were inconsistent, and bore no correspondence to Consumer Reports’s test.

Intuition had worked alright. Thinking led them astray.

Wilson went on to find similar results for other behaviors, like buying cars and choosing pieces of art. In both cases, people made better decisions and reported higher satisfaction later on when they made their decisions without having to list the reasons why. A participant would simply look at the options, get distracted by a crossword puzzle, and then go with his gut. Ap Dijksterhuis, a psychologist at the University of Amsterdam, found identical results examining people’s home buying and grocery shopping behavior.

The Science

These surprising results find their explanation in the science of the brain. Let’s look at two parts of the brain, then see how they play into our discussion.

The prefrontal cortex lies on the brain’s outer shell, beneath the forehead. It’s the seat of logic and fore-planning, and it’s what we use when we undergo conscious deliberation about a course of action.

The limbic system on the other hand is the brain’s internal core. Its functions are more primal; it deals with instincts, desires, and (of course) intuitions.

The first reason that more thinking doesn’t always equal better decisions is information overload. As George Miller eloquently points out in “The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two,” the brain can juggle about seven pieces of information at a time. So when we make choices involving more than just a handful of data, the prefrontal cortex starts dropping valuable factoids.

The second reason is that our actual desires and goals reside in the limbic system. The prefrontal cortex has to leap across a huge gap in order to access and understand those preferences. Often it ends up doing a rather poor job. What we think and say we want might not be what we actually want, simply because of the giant disconnect between the conscious mind (prefrontal cortex) and the unconscious desires (limbic system).

The Application

Absorb as much information as you can; even the limbic system, with its intuitive unconscious processing power, uses input data. Pay close attention to the variables for different options. Then, get distracted. Better, sleep on it. After about ten minutes (or a good night’s sleep) you’ll be better equipped to make an informed, prudent decision.

But here’s an important caveat: some decisions are simple enough that your prefrontal cortex is more than able to process them. Dijksterhuis points out that simpler choices can be made mroe effectively by thinking them through. It’s just a matter of how complex they really are.

Additional (really awesome) reading:



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This article in Science Daily recently caught my attention.

Highlights: Talking to people boosts memory and intelligence about as effectively as so-called “intellectual” activities like solving cross-word puzzles (but more than watching tv).

Need a brain boost today? Call up some friends, and go hang out!


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Enjoyable and practical highlights from this excellent article:

Give kids “brain training” games, talk to people more often, and ride motorcycles. Eat breakfast whenever possible, avoid artificial food additives and colors (in exchange for 14% higher IQ), and eat more fish (or at least take the Omega-3 supplements).

That’s all for now, folks!


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The Big Idea

Don’t be afraid to think with your gut. No, not your stomach–your emotions and intuitions. At least, that’s the best advice to get from the latest research in brain science. As it turns out, brief emotions and quick intuitions are critical in guiding us to sound decisions. Sometimes they can even do the job better than so-called “logical,” and thought out decision-making. Regardless, the big idea is this: pay attention to fleeting feelings. They might even save your life.

The Science

It turns out that while the human brain has amazing capacities for mathematics, science, and abstract logic, those mechanisms aren’t what it uses for making decisions. In fact, we can be led astray by putting too much faith in them when it’s not appropriate to do so. But what are the appropriate mechanisms? Let’s look first at the orbitofrontal cortex.

The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is located in the front of your brain, just above your eye-sockets. Among a host of other tasks, it lets us experience emotions—both the good and the bad. Similarly, it helps us inhibit more primal and dangerous urges (when it gets damaged, people curse, gamble, and generally act like monkeys). It doesn’t really have anything to do with logic, but without it, people become unable to make decisions (literally unable to decide practically anything). The orbitofrontal cortex responds to emotional cues brought on from another area of the brain—the nucleus accumbens.

The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) plays a relatively simpler role in our story. It creates the chemical that rules our emotions—dopamine. Fluctuations of dopamine tell us whether to be scared, happy, or excited, or anything else. But how does the NAcc know what signals to send? We’re now at the root of the process.

The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) develops a pattern of expectations about how the world works, and when our senses violate those expectations, the ACC makes a serious fuss. It sends an electrical signal (known as error-related negativity, if you fancy the details) to the NAcc when something unexpected happens, telling it what to do with the dopamine. A dopamine rush for your friend picking up the bill? Coming right up. A dopamine strike for your date who only paid for his own meal? Consider it done.

Those signals route to the orbitofrontal cortex, which evaluates them, and translates them into decisions. To summarize, the brain is able to develop patterns of how the world works, and those models tell us whether something is good or bad. Quarterbacks on the field go through this process in split-seconds, as they intuitively evaluate passing options based on rushed glances across the field. The receiver on the left is covered too well, according to the anterior cingulate cortex’s expectations (reponse: dopamine strike and a fleeting twinge of “bad feeling”). The one on the right is perfectly set to catch the ball, says the ACC right before making an “A-OK” feel good moment. Quarterback feels good about his prospect, quarterback throws.

There are extraordinary cases too, such as Lieutenant Commander Michael Riley’s sharp intuition in the Persian Gulf War. He saw a blip on the radar looking just like any of the American planes, but he was scared. His gut was screaming “danger.” He ordered the blip shot down, unable to give any reason at all why. Turns out, he shot down a missile that would have destroyed the whole ship. Later analysis revealed exactly what his brain picked up on, but the point is this—neither he nor any of the radar watchers on the ship could logically justify the response.

If they relied on logic, they would be dead. We can be thankful that Lieutenant Commander Riley relied on his gut.


I am going to follow up on this post with some more research and brain science demonstrating the power of intuition, but for now, the point is that you should trust gut feelings—not just the overarching scary ones, but the little pangs and twinges, the “doesn’t feel quite right” moments. As I’ll talk about more later, not only can you trust those feelings, but they can do a better job than even a thorough rational analysis.

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